A digital archive tracing the spatial cultures of
Broken Windows policing.
1961
"The Death and Life of Great American Cities," Chapter 2: "The Uses of Sidewalks: Safety"

Jane Jacobs

New York, NY

Dated 1961

Research 1961–1993

1972
"Defensible Space: Crime Prevention Through Urban Design," Chapter 1: "Defensible Space"

Oscar Newman

New York, NY

Dated 1972

Research 1961–1993

1981
"The Newark Foot Patrol Experiment," Chapter 8: "Conclusions"

George L. Kelling

*The Newark Foot Patrol Experiment*

Washington, DC

Dated 1981

Research 1961–1993

1982
"Broken Windows: The Police and Neighborhood Safety"

George L. Kelling, James Q. Wilson

The Atlantic

Dated March 1982

Elections

Legislation

1988
"Fuck tha Police"

N.W.A.

*Straight Outta Compton*

Los Angeles, CA

Dated 9 Aug 1988

Arts & Culture

1989
"COPS"

John Langley, Malcolm Barbour

Dated 11 March 1989

Arts & Culture

1989
"Do the Right Thing"

Spike Lee

Universal Pictures

New York, NY

Dated 30 June 1989

Arts & Culture

1990
"Public Law 101-625: The Cranston-Gonzalez National Affordable Housing Act"

United States Congress

Washington, DC

Dated 28 Nov 1990

Legislation

1992
"Taking Back the Subway for the People of New York"

The New York City Transit Police Department

New York, NY

Dated 1992

NYPD

1992
"The National Action Plan" from The Final Report of the National Commission on Severely Distressed Public Housing

United States Department of Housing and Urban Development

Washington, DC

Dated Aug 1992

Legislation

1992
"Clinton Campaign Speech"

Bill Clinton

Romulus, MI

Dated 17 Oct 1992

Elections

1993
“Precinct Community Council Handbook”

Raymond W. Kelly, Wilhelmina E. Holliday

New York City, NY

Dated 1993

NYPD

1993
"Rudy Giuliani for Mayor—Decisive Leadership for a Change!

Giuliani for New York

New York, NY

Dated 1993

Elections

1993
"Community Policing and the Police Officer"

Edwin Meese III

*Perspectives on Policing*

Washington, DC

Dated Jan 1993

Research 1961–1993

1993
"Information Systems and the Development of Policing"

Malcolm K. Sparrow

*Perspectives on Policing*

Washington, DC

Dated Jan 1993

Research 1961–1993

1993
"The Strategic Management of Police Resources"

David M. Kennedy

*Perspectives on Policing*

Washington, DC

Dated Jan 1993

Research 1961–1993

1993
"Black and Blue"

Brand Nubian

*In God We Trust*

New York, NY

Dated 2 Feb 1993

Arts & Culture

1993
"Rudy Giuliani Notes for Speech at the New School"

Rudy Giuliani

N/A

New York, NY

Dated 12 July 1993

Elections

1993
"Giuliani Zeroing In On Crime Issue"

Alison Mitchell

The New York Times

New York, NY

Dated 20 Sept 1993

Elections

News

1993
"Roz Abrams Interview with R. Giuliani"

Roz Abrams with Rudy Giuliani

WABC-TV, Channel 7

New York, NY

Dated 19 Oct 1993

Elections

News

1993
"On The Issues—Issues Are Not A Matter of Debate"

New York Newsday with Rudolph Giuliani, David Dinkins, and George Marlin

*New York Newsday*

New York, NY

Dated 24 Oct 1993

Elections

News

1993
"New York Mayor News Conference"

C-SPAN with New York City Mayor Rudolph Giuliani

New York, NY

Dated 28 Nov 1993

News

Elections

1993
"Sound of da Police"

KRS-One

New York, NY

Dated 6 Dec 1993

Arts & Culture

1994
"Of Squeegee Men & 'Broken Windows'"

Ordway P. Burden

*Law Enforcement News*

New York City, NY

Dated 14 Feb 1994

NYPD

News

1994
"Police Strategy No. 2: Curbing Youth Violence In The Schools and On the Streets"

Rudolph W. Giuliani, William J. Bratton

New York City, NY

Dated 6 April 1994

NYPD

1994
"Police Strategy No. 3: Driving Drug Dealers Out of New York"

Rudolph W. Giuliani, William J. Bratton

New York City, NY

Dated 6 April 1994

NYPD

1994
“Police Strategy No. 5: Reclaiming the Public Spaces of New York”

Rudolph W. Giuliani, William J. Bratton

New York City, NY

Dated 6 July 1994

NYPD

1994
"Public Law 103-322: Violent Crime Control and Law Enforcement Act of 1994, Title I—Public Safety and Policing"

United States Congress

Washington, DC

Dated Sept 1994

Legislation

1994
"In the PJs"

Big Daddy Kane, feat. Big Scoob

*Daddy's Home*

New York, NY

Dated 13 Sept 1994

Arts & Culture

1995
"Defensible Space: Deterring Crime and Building Community"

Henry G. Cisneros

Washington, DC

Dated Jan 1995

Legislation

1995
“The Year Of Change: Reengineering The New York City Police Department”

Rudolph W. Giuliani, William J. Bratton

New York City, NY

Dated Jan 1995

NYPD

1995
"New York City Crime Falls But Just Why Is a Mystery"

Clifford Krauss

*The New York Times*

New York City, NY

Dated 1 Jan 1995

News

1995
Flashpoint #117: "Who Polices the Police?"

Michael Cottman, Eric Breindel

New York City, NY

Dated 28 Feb 1995

News

1995
RadioTalk TV

Dara Welles

New York City, NY

Dated 14 March 1995

News

1995
"Safe? You Bet Your Life"

John Moody

*Time*

New York City, NY

Dated 24 July 1995

News

1995
"The Suddenly Safer City"

Craig Horowitz

*New York*

New York City, NY

Dated 14 Aug 1995

News

1995
"In the Line of Duty"

Eightball & MJG

*On Top of the World*

Houston, TX

Dated 1 Nov 1995

Arts & Culture

1995
"Police Strategy No. 8: Reclaiming the Roads of New York"

Rudolph W. Giuliani, William J. Bratton

New York City, NY

Dated 29 Nov 1995

NYPD

1995
"Crime is Down, Again"

The New York Times Editorial Board

*The New York Times*

New York City, NY

Dated 23 Dec 1995

News

1996
"LEN salutes its 1995 Man of the Year, architect & urban planner Oscar Newman: Creator & prime exponent of the 'defensible space' approach to crime prevention”

Jacob R. Clark

*Law Enforcement News*

New York City, NY

Dated 15 Jan 1996

NYPD

News

1996
"The Sweet Smell of Success, the Sour Taste of Bad Apples"

Marie Simonetti Rosen

*Law Enforcement News*

New York City, NY

Dated 15 Jan 1996

News

NYPD

1996
"State of the Union Address"

Bill Clinton

Washington, DC

Dated 23 Jan 1996

Elections

Legislation

1998
Zero Tolerance: Policing a Free Society, "Crime is Down in New York City: Blame the Police"

William J. Bratton

*Zero Tolerance: Policing a Free Society*, Ed. Norman Dennis

London

Dated Jan 1998

Research 1961–1993

1998
"Looking Through The Eye Of A Pig"

Cypress Hill

*Cypress Hill IV*

Los Angeles, CA

Dated 6 Oct 1998

Arts & Culture

1998
"Public Law 105-276: The Quality Housing and Work Responsibility Act"

United States Congress

Washington, DC

Dated 21 Oct 1998

Legislation

1999
"Hope VI: Building Communities, Transforming Lives"

United States Department of Housing and Urban Development

Washington, DC

Dated Dec 1999

Legislation